Key Publications

Details of latest worldwide consensus global competence research since first publications

Hunter, C.K. & Hunter, W.D. (2024) (White Paper Coming Soon)

Article published by the United Nations on World Youth Skills Day explains that global competence is a critical competency to develop for today’s global workforce, and that having global competence is necessary to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

Hunter, W./B. (2015, July 15). Global Competence Amongst Youth is Critical to Achieve Sustainable Development Goals. United Nations Office of the Secretary-General’s Envoy on Youth.

Peer-reviewed seminal research yielded a worldwide consensus definition and model for the term global competence across the education-workforce continuum

Hunter, W. D., White, G. P., & Godbey, G. C. (2006). What Does It Mean to be Globally Competent? Journal of Studies in International Education, 10(3), 267-285.

Distinguishes between research conducted by Deardorff and the model of intercultural competence and the research conducted by Hunter and the Global Competence Model™

Deardorff, D. K. & Hunter, W. D. (2006). Educating Global-Ready Graduates. International Educator, 15(3), 72 – 83.

Explains the rationale for the seminal research on global competence—a paradigm shift due to globalization—and that future economic success demands that students of the 21st century develop new skills for the global workforce, which necessitates global education reform

Hunter, W. D. (2004). Got Global Competency? International Educator, 13(2) 6-12.

Seminal doctoral research yielded a worldwide consensus definition and model for the term global competence across the education-workforce continuum

Hunter, W. D. (2004). Knowledge, Skills, Attitudes, and Experiences Necessary to Become Globally Competent. [Doctoral dissertation, Lehigh University]. ProQuest.

Selected Publications Utilizing GCA Research and Assessment

The GCAA® measured statistically significant differences among K-12 educational leaders of Canadian schools where global education programs were prioritized compared with a control group where global learning was not prioritized. Younger generations of educators and those with greater travel, language, and intercultural interaction experience had higher GCAA® scores

Nippard, R., Charoenarpornwattana, P. & Chuchuen, R. (2022). Global Competence Matters—An Analysis of System Education Leaders in Alberta, Canada. Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Research in Asia, 28(2), 99 – 119.

Doctoral research study measured high school teachers’ global competence using the GCAA® and documented how educators’ inadequacy in their own personal global readiness inhibits their developing global competence in students

Lippert, A.A. (2020). Convergent Parallel Mixed-Methods Case Study: Examining and Exploring Teachers’ Global Competence Including Perceptions and Preparedness at a South-Central Pennsylvania High School. [Doctoral dissertation, Drexel University] ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.

The GCAA® measured global competence growth of Yale University students participating in a short-term study abroad experience for immersive language learning

Schenker, T. (2019). Fostering Global Competence through Short-Term Study Abroad. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 31(2), 139–157.

Texas A&M University based their reaccreditation plan on the Global Competence Model™, demonstrated student growth with the GCAA®, and called for global workforce readiness

Kaushik, R., Raisinghani, M. S., Gibson, S, & Assis, N. (2017). The Global Aptitude Assessment Model: A Critical Perspective, American Journal of
Management, 17 (5), 81-86.

A multicultural living learning community at the University of Sydney used the GCAA® to develop residents’ global competence as part of a global leadership program

Kunda, B. (2017). Engendering Systemic and Cultural Leadership Practices in Residential College Communities: The Global Leadership Program at International
House, the University of Sydney. The Australian and New Zealand Student Services Association, 25(2), 71–74.

Participants in the University of Maryland global leader program used the GCAA® to identify individual growth areas and to create personalized global leadership development plans

Niehaus, E.K., O’Rourke & M.A., Ostick, D.T. (2012). Global Leadership Development Plans: Engaging Students as Agents in Their Own Development. Journal of
Leadership Studies, 6(2), 116-122.

Study abroad supports global competence development, as mobilized students scored significantly higher on the GCAA® in all cultural knowledge, interpersonal skills, and attitudes dimensions of the Global Competence Model™ than students who did not study abroad

Greunke, E. J. (2010). The Global Project: Observing Geographic Literacy Obtained by Study Abroad Learning. (Publication No. 201) [Master’s Thesis, Western Kentucky University]. DigitalCommons


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